What is dyslexia and dysgraphia? How to deal with them?


Many parents are surprised to learn that their elementary school student cannot cope with the study of the Russian language — he cannot write almost a single word without errors. When teaching schoolchildren to write, many are diagnosed with dysgraphia. Every year the number of children with this diagnosis increases. Diagnosis is easy — much more difficult to deal with this problem. Our author, Valentina Albertovna Krutetskaya, will answer the most pressing questions of parents who are faced with dysgraphia and dyslexia in their children, and talk about books that will help them solve these problems.

What is dysgraphia?

Dysgraphia is a violation of writing (dis — disorder, grapho — I write). It manifests itself in the difficulties of developing literate writing skills.

Sometimes dysgraphia is mistaken for a child’s ignorance of the rules of the Russian language. Compare, for example, two different entries for the word sentence: application and bridlashene. The first option is ignorance of the rule, and the second is a dysgraphic violation.

Most often, dysgraphia manifests itself in a child along with dyslexia (a reading problem). Dysgraphia and dyslexia can occur in children with normal intellectual development, intact oral speech, full vision and hearing. This will not go away by itself, you will have to work on eliminating dysgraphia and dyslexia.

How do you know if a child has dysgraphia?

Look in your child’s notebook. Here are some signs and characteristic errors that may indicate that a student has dysgraphia:

1) sloppy and unreadable handwriting (too small or very large, multi-level spelling of letters in a word),

2) no spaces between words,

3) non-compliance with the boundaries of the fields in the notebook and the rules for word wrapping,

4) omission of some elements of letters,

5) mirror spelling of some letters or words,

6) replacement or omissions of letters in words (dog — dog, bun — pads),

7) repetition of the same letter (pie — pyrope),

8) the child does not use capital letters and punctuation marks, there are a lot of spelling and grammatical errors in his notebooks.

The manifestations of dysgraphia also include the poverty of the vocabulary, the inability of the child to build a sentence, retell the text. The student spends a lot of time doing homework, and as a result, only his physical and emotional fatigue accumulates — there is an aversion to learning.

Can dysgraphia be corrected?

The number of junior schoolchildren with writing disorders is growing every year. But despite the fact that it is difficult to correct dysgraphia and dyslexia (this is a long and painstaking work, in which speech therapists often have to be involved), in most cases the problem is solvable. Needed: willingness to work, time and patience. This process will not be quick and easy — it may take months and years of hard and systematic work. Some dysgraphic errors can be corrected quickly, others can take years of hard work to get rid of.

What are the types of dysgraphia?

In speech therapy, there are several forms of writing disorders.

1. Articulatory-acoustic. Incorrect pronunciation of speech sounds, hence the incorrect spelling of words.

2. Acoustic. The child confuses sounds similar in sound (voiced-voiced: [б]-[п], [д]-[т], [з]-[с]; hissing: [с]-[ш], [з]-[ж]; does not distinguish the softness of individual sounds).

3. Optical. The child does not distinguish between the spelling of some letters: he adds unnecessary elements (sticks, dashes, circles), skips the necessary ones, often gives a mirror image of the letters.

4. Language analysis and synthesis. The child skips or repeats words, rearranges syllables, does not make gaps between words, etc.

5. Agrammatic dysgraphia. The child writes contrary to the rules of grammar (beautiful cat, funny boy).

What exercises correct dyslexia and dysgraphia?

Here are just a few tips for parents. What needs to be done?

1. The general development of the child, expanding his vocabulary and horizons, getting to know unfamiliar words.

2. Expressive reading.

3. Correction of oral speech — the correct pronunciation and distinction of speech sounds (the use of proverbs, sayings, tongue twisters, tongue twisters helps a lot in work).

4. All kinds of games with letters and words.

5. Control cheating and spelling pronunciation.

6. Solving riddles, puzzles and crossword puzzles.

All these and many other exercises are included in my books, which have already helped many teachers and parents in working with children.

These manuals contain exercises addressed to students in grades 1-4 to correct dysgraphia. They will be effective if individual work with the child is carried out systematically. Answers to assignments and recommendations for parents will help to organize and conduct classes competently.

Remember that dysgraphia is a disorder that you can and should work with. The task of parents is to provide the child with psychological support: to show interest in his success, to make classes interesting, not to scold, but to praise for the smallest victories.

We wish you success!


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