The device and principle of operation of digital and analog video intercom


Video intercoms, in comparison with conventional access control systems that offer only a voice method for identifying a visitor, guarantee their owners a higher level of security. Today, as access control systems proliferate, attackers are finding more ways to bypass them. Therefore, many people prefer to install a video system instead of a conventional intercom or create an individual option for identifying visitors.

When Should You Install a Video Intercom?

A video intercom in an apartment is invaluable if there is a feeling of insufficient security provided by the access control system at the entrance. With one or more cameras, you can get a much more reliable identification of visitors and their intentions. Advantages of a video intercom look like this:

  • the ability to get an image of the visitor even at night;
  • see not only the person in front of the camera, but also the situation from the side, thanks to the connection of additional sources of video recording;
  • a video intercom for a private house can fully replace a video surveillance system, operating with several cameras, reacting to events, for example, movement in the frame.

video intercom

In addition, it is possible to separate the security structure by installing a separate entry panel on the door of the apartment, not connected to the driveway access control system. Thanks to the capabilities of modern video intercoms, such as recording what is happening, photographing the caller, transmitting data and commands over the Internet, you can significantly improve the interaction with your visitors and family members.

The device and principle of operation of an analog intercom

An analog video intercom for an apartment works on the same principles as an access access control system. He can interact with it using an adapter. In this case, the visitor from the outside calls the owner directly from the access door dial. The analog intercom device includes several large functional modules.

Call panel

The call panel allows you to identify the visitor in any weather conditions. On it are installed:

  • camera;
  • infrared illumination night vision;
  • microphone for communication;
  • speaker;
  • call button or numeric keypad for multi-party models;
  • electronic key reader.

The call panel of the video intercom is in progress in anti-vandal design, from the metal covered with a strong layer of heat-resistant paint. The camera lens is closed with a triplex or recessed inside the body.

Important! The call panel has a peculiarity of work: the camera has a rather narrow viewing angle. Therefore, the visitor must stand close to the lens to obtain a clear and legible picture.

Depending on the complexity of the model, the call panel may have one built-in camera and ports for connecting additional surveillance devices.

inner panel

The internal panel is established in the apartment or in the house. This is a monitor for displaying camera images with buttons for control. He can be without tube and work as a voice intercom. However, many users prefer the classic version of the intercom. Video intercom monitor with tube allows you not to disturb others by communicating with the visitor.

Intercom in the apartment

The internal module contains:

  • a means of transmitting an audio signal from a caller, a handset or a speaker;
  • lock control buttons;
  • a keyboard or a set of buttons to activate certain device functions;
  • speaker for call signaling;
  • microphone.

Important! The inner panel needs a power supply. The adapter supplies voltage not only to the monitor and electronic parts. It powers the controlled lock and, in some cases, the call panel.


The internal panel of the video intercom can control one or more electromechanical or electromagnetic locks. They can also be opened from the calling panel using an identification key. When choosing a video intercom for a house or apartment, you should definitely pay attention to what types of locks it controls.

Electromechanical lock can be opened with a simple key. When the mains voltage fails, it remains closed. As a result, intruders who cut the cable will not be able to get inside. Electromagnetic locks opened only by commands. In the event of a power failure, to ensure safety, they are unlocked.

Intercom with electromechanical lock

Interface block

The video intercom interface unit is almost always bought separately — this module needed to connect to the access access control system. Depending on its type, the principle of operation of the interface unit is different.

  1. Analogue coordinate matrix addressing system uses a multi-core bus. One group of wires is responsible for transmitting the tens identifier of the subscriber number, the other for units. Interface units for connection to such a bus are galvanically isolated.
  2. Digital addressing system easier. In order to connect a video intercom to an access access control system, you need to correctly set the apartment number on the interface unit using jumpers.

Interface block

Important! It is not necessary to study the intricacies of connection if the video intercom is installed in a private house as an independent access control system. But if you plan to mount it in an apartment, you should pay close attention to the characteristics of the access access control system and the parameters of the interface unit. It happens that certain models of video intercoms simply cannot be connected to a bus of one type or another.

The analog system works as follows. If the video intercom is not connected to the access access control system, when you press the button on the outside panel on the inside, a signal sounds. The owner immediately sees the visitor. By picking up the handset or pressing the intercom button, he can find out the purpose of the visit and any other information. After that, it is enough to unlock the lock with the corresponding key. When integrating a video intercom into an access access control system, almost the same process occurs. The difference is that the address of the apartment is generated by the calling panel according to the dialed number. After identifying the visitor, the owner of the video intercom gives a command to unlock the access lock.

Intercom in the apartment

Unlike a conventional intercom, an analog-type video system requires an additional cable to be laid.. It transmits audio and video simultaneously. Based on all of the above, we can briefly describe the features of analog video intercoms.

  1. Difficult to mount, requires cabling.
  2. A separate interface unit is required for integration into existing access control systems.
  3. It is a closed system (outdoor — internal panel).
  4. Image quality is not high.

Important! Most analog video intercoms do not offer any additional options: video cannot be recorded, motion sensor data is not processed, photos are not available.

Digital video intercoms

A digital video intercom differs from an analog one in a data transmission system: it does not need switches and coordinate buses. It transmits all data, including from several sources — cameras, one twisted pair cable. At the same time, one system deployed in an apartment building can serve up to 255 subscribers. IP video intercom is the most reliable device. Failure of any of the system modules, cable damage does not affect the operation of other components.

Scheme of operation of a digital video intercom

Today you can buy the easiest to install, with arbitrarily complex functionality, a wireless video intercom. To him no cabling required. It is enough to place call panels, cameras, indoor monitors that will communicate with each other via Wifi or another communication protocol. This wireless capability is invaluable in an apartment building. However, legal requirements must be taken into account.

Important! Before you buy a wireless video intercom for an apartment, the cameras of which will be placed in the entrance, with an overview of the access areas, in a common partition, you need to organize a meeting of residents and obtain written permission from them. All the subtleties of registration can always be found in the management company.

Digital systems offer complete freedom of movement and information exchange. Models with cloud recording allow you to view photos or videos from any computer connected to the Internet. You can chat with the visitor through a smartphone. Using a remote connection, it is easy to reconfigure the system, block identification keys, and study the event log.

Digital video intercom in the apartment

The digital video intercom does not need a keypad. It acts as an auxiliary control tool. Telephone connected systems allow you to get rid of additional monitors and panels in an apartment or house. Being anywhere in the world, it is easy to get a video sequence, talk to a visitor, open doors, record a conversation. Integration with global networks gives the owner of a digital video intercom complete freedom of action and movement.

The best video intercoms

Video intercom Tor-neT TR-26 W on Yandex Market

Video intercom Falcon Eye FE-VELA on Yandex Market

Video intercom Altcam VDP431 on Yandex Market

Video intercom OPTIMUS VM-E4 on Yandex Market

FE-43C Falcon Eye Color Video Intercom on Yandex Market


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