The types of modern TVs and their typical classification according to certain criteria are quite diverse. Therefore, when deciding to purchase new television equipment, many consumers face difficulties in choosing. After all, this is a complex device that is purchased for a long time, so it must have a high degree of reliability. Choosing this type of device, I want it to have an up-to-date set of necessary functions and high technical equipment in a few years. In order to choose the right model for yourself with the necessary parameters and optimal functionality, it is important to understand how the types of TVs differ from each other.
Technologies for creating an image on a TV
This group of TVs is divided into five types:
- liquid crystal;
- thin OLEDs.
The first three types are outdated today and are practically not found on sale, so we will not consider them.
This is the most popular group among consumers. The operation of liquid crystal devices is based on polarization of the light flux. The light source here, unlike plasma TVs, is ordinary fluorescent lamps, or, as in LED models, LEDs. They illuminate the white reflective screen behind the glass plate. Liquid crystals are applied to it, which, under the influence of an electric current, form a picture.
Members of this group differ economical energy consumption and light weight, they can be easily mounted on the wall with a bracket. In addition, LCD equipment maintainablethis characterizes them as practical devices.
The disadvantages of budget models include a delay in dynamic frames and a limited viewing angle.
The most popular liquid crystal TVs among consumers are LED. LEDs act as backlighting of the matrix. The strengths of LED screens include:
- a wide range of models and a choice of manufacturers;
- any currently available diagonal solutions;
- absence of visible flicker and beam focusing defects;
- there are no problems with image geometry and clarity;
- are perfect for broadcasting not only analog channels, but also modern digital television.
The matrix is based on organic LEDs. The picture is displayed on the screen using self-emitting diodes — no backlight is required, as in LCD technology — this is the main difference between OLED and LED. Multi-colored semiconductor devices act as independent light sources. OLED technology allows creating the thinnest screens to date (several millimeters), including curved ones.
Such devices are many times superior to their predecessors. Organic LEDs allow you to get the highest possible level of image brightness, contrast, color reproduction. Practically unlimited viewing anglewhich is in no way inferior to plasma technology. In addition, they are much lighter, thinner and more energy efficient than plasma devices. In LCD-models, OLED technology wins in the smoothness of the transfer of dynamic scenes, the lack of constant backlighting.
At the moment, OLED devices have a short lifespan of about 10,000 hours, while LCDs claim about 60,000. And this despite the fact that the cost of such devices is still quite high for the average buyer.
It is worth noting that there is another type of screen promoted by Samsung — QLED. This technology involves the use of LEDs based on quantum dots. Such TVs allow you to transmit color that is closest to reality.
Backlight options for LCD (LED) screens
The principle of operation of the LCD matrix is based on its visual manifestation when illuminated. Without illumination, the crystals are not visible to the user. The quality of the backlight determines the quality of the image that the user sees: its brightness and color reproduction.
The most popular matrix illumination solution is EDGE LED backlight, which is around the perimeter. LEDs emit light that is reflected from the diffuser and diverges over the entire surface of the matrix. Such a backlight does not “work through” black color well, and this is its main problem.
Carpet lighting (Direct LED) occupies the entire area behind the matrix, illuminating it evenly. Through electronic control, local dimming of the matrix is possible when part of the backlight is turned off, as a result of which the contrast increases.
Types of television matrices
The quality of the picture on the TV screen is determined by the type of matrix on which it works. All matrices implement different physical principles of operation.
This type of matrix is inexpensive, it is used in the technique of the lower price segment. Considering poor quality characteristicsthe matrix is \u200b\u200binstalled in small TVs.
Recognizing this type of crystal is not difficult: TVs with this technology have a minimum viewing angle.
A decent picture can be seen only by standing in front of the screen. Changing the angle of view leads to a significant deterioration in image quality: the color is distorted and the contrast decreases.
This is the favorite matrix of manufacturers such as LG and Philips. She reproduces the image with excellent color reproduction. The viewing angle of such a matrix is large. Its weak point is the response time: it is somewhat longer than other types, and a high black level.
In the store, this type of matrix can also be recognized visually: with a large viewing angle, black looks like purple, this is a characteristic feature of IPS.
This matrix is used by Samsung and other leading manufacturers that produce modern TVs. This type of matrix has a slightly weaker color reproduction and halftone reproduction than IPS screens. However, this type of matrix has a number of advantages in relation to IPS, namely, it has a better viewing angle, brightness and contrast characteristics are also superior to IPS.
The VA-matrix also has its own characteristics, by which it can be identified with the naked eye. When viewing such a TV from the side image contrast is reducedbut the color rendition as a whole does not suffer, lilac-gray haze is visible on black pixels.
This type of matrix was developed and patented Sharp specialists. The pixels of this matrix are well lit on the back wall (without light leakage), thanks to which the screen produces rich, deep blacks.
The contrast of such a screen is very high, the brightness also gives odds to all other matrices. At the same time, a TV on such a matrix is energy efficient and consumes very little energy.
Advice! When buying a TV, you should pay attention to IPS, VA and UVA matrices, because. they have the best indicators of profitability and quality.
Experts divide TVs by screen resolution into three large groups:
For older CRT TVs, only SD TV is available. Since most TV channels are still broadcast in this mode, models with a resolution of 720 × 576 pixels, 720 × 480 pixels are relevant and used by a large number of users.
For such a TV, you can access paid channels in high quality using a smart card. It is issued by the provider for connection either directly to the TV, through the CAM module, or through the set-top box.
New generation TVs — LED, OLED and plasma — support TV high and ultra high definition. The most relevant format is HDTV (from 1280×720 pixels to 1920×1080 pixels). It is available on digital TV.
For some models of OLED devices, the best 4K resolution (3840 × 2160 pixels) available today; 8K (7680×4320 pixels) — Ultra HD.
It is worth noting that the future belongs to UHD TV. But at present, only a few TV channels are broadcast in this format. Cable operators and satellite service providers are constantly expanding the list of channels transmitted in high definition.
The concept of «smart» has already touched many areas of technology. The use of «smart» technologies significantly expands the basic capabilities of TVs, making them intuitively controllable and adaptive. Smart TVs do not just broadcast a picture, they become an entertainment center: they work with any media content, including in various applications, and connect to the Internet.
Smart TVs are no longer a novelty. If the first copies were available (primarily at a price) to a few, now the acquisition of such equipment is not a problem for a wide range of buyers.
Expanding the functionality to the level of «smart» is possible thanks to a built-in computer with a specific operating system and connection to the World Wide Web. The user can access the network, use applications, online cinemas and other useful things.
The most popular smart TV options:
- surfing and access to social networks;
- the possibilities of online cinemas;
- the ability to connect to gaming applications.
SmartTVs are similar in functionality to other electronic gadgets (phones and tablets) with Internet access. They can use the Internet to search for information, communication, online games.
To enjoy all these benefits, you can go online through browsers, which is not very convenient and fast. It is more efficient to conduct registration as a client on various services: online cinemas, video hosting sites (for example, on YouTube).
Connecting to the network is possible in two ways: cable and wireless Wi-Fi connection. You can control this miracle of technology with a remote control, but it is better to connect a mouse or keyboard to it.
This innovative format has a number of advantages over the traditional version of TVs:
- the surface of the screen covered by the gaze increases;
- less influence of ambient light: no reflection, optical defects, glare;
- the effect of presence is created;
- improved viewing angle, contrast.
Such TVs look stylish, unusual, create the effect of immersion in what is happening on the screen. However, the maximum quality is available only to those who sit opposite the center of the arc. For a person sitting on the side, the line of sight will be at some angle from the surface of the TV. As a result, the picture will lose brightness, contrast, color.
Therefore, in order to fully appreciate this format, it is necessary to sit opposite the central axis of the screen and not far from it, so that the TV, as it were, embraces the user on the sides.