If you are reading this article, then You have made the right choice! The choice in favor of wooden housing construction in the modern world is becoming more common. Undeservedly forgotten for decades, a living tree regains its lost position as a reliable, comfortable and safe building material for life and recreation.

Wooden housing construction has more than one millennium. At a time when the ancient peoples of the Mediterranean built temples and dwellings from stone and clay, wood was the main building material in Europe and East Asia.

The world’s oldest surviving structure is the Horyu-ji Temple (607 AD) in the city of Ikagura in Japan.

In ancient Slavic culture, many rituals, beliefs and legends are associated with a tree. This is not just a building material, but living flesh, endowed with a soul, capable of protecting or punishing people living in the house. In Russia, everything was built from wood — from a simple fence to the city Kremlin.

CLASSIFICATION OF SYSTEMS OF WOODEN HOUSE-BUILDING

The appearance on the market of new high-tech materials made of wood, as well as effective technologies, has revived wood as an excellent building and finishing material for housing construction. In the modern market, the following systems of individual housing construction are most common: from solid wood (from profiled timber or rounded logs), frame and panel.

House made of logs.

An untreated log has a natural cone shape (thick at the butt thins towards the top). To facilitate the assembly of the log house and give it an aesthetic appearance, the log is processed at the factory, giving it an ideal cylindrical shape.

When assembling a house between logs, tow or jute is used as a heat-insulating material. After assembly, the frame of the house from rounded logs must stand for at least 6 months to undergo shrinkage.

Timber house.

The beam can be rectangular, profiled or glued. The technology of building structures from it is very similar to building houses from logs. The most technologically advanced and common material is profiled timber, the cross-sectional shape of which allows you to maximize the horizontal joints between the crowns.

Higher quality and most perfect material — glued profiled timber. Since glued laminated timber is made from dried wood, it does not require any shrinkage time. Therefore, the installation of a house made of glued laminated timber on a finished foundation does not exceed three to four weeks.

It should be noted that houses made of solid wood do not need interior decoration — the material itself is so good that it meets any, the most demanding aesthetic tastes.

Frame house.

The frame house consists of a wooden frame filled with insulation. The warmest of modern wooden houses.

House made of glued wood panels.

A relatively new technology, which consists in the manufacture of massive panels from wood of 4-5 grades, up to 300 mm thick, from which house details are cut. The layers of boards in the panel are perpendicular to each other. The height of the panels is 3 m, the length is up to 12 m. Walls, ceilings and roofs are made from this panel.

This is the fastest technology for building a wooden house today. The installation of the building is carried out at the construction site. The speed of installation of a house with an area of ​​250 sq.m. is 4-5 days.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF A WOODEN HOUSE

In terms of the combination of favorable environmental factors and physical and mechanical characteristics, wood has no equal among known building materials. Due to its structure, the tree is able to regulate the oxygen balance, absorb excess moisture from the air that occurs during human life, accumulate it, and release it during the period when the air in the room becomes dry. Thus, optimal humidity is constantly maintained in the house. In addition, the tree has significant vapor permeability (the house «breathes»), as well as high thermal efficiency — the tree quickly receives and gives off heat for a long time, a wooden house is easy to heat, and when heated, it will keep warm for a long time. For comparison: a 200 mm thick beam retains heat in the same way as a 520 mm brick wall.

TYPES OF HAZARDS FOR WOODEN STRUCTURES

Of course, of the external factors, the greatest danger to wooden structures is fire — a flame can destroy a building in a matter of minutes. Also, the tree is subject to destruction under the influence of various biological factors (exposure to mold and wood-destroying fungi, bacteria, insects, overgrowing vegetation).

To choose the most optimal methods (or combinations of them) for fire and biological protection, there are several different classifications of wood. Let’s consider them further:

CLASSIFICATION OF PROTECTIVE MEANS FOR WOOD

To increase the resistance of wood to decay, our predecessors burned it on fire or smeared it with tar. Today, there are a number of tools that allow you to quickly, efficiently, and most importantly, for a long time to protect wooden structures from the effects of negative external factors.

According to the nature of the action, wood protective agents are divided into:

  • antiseptics (substances that destroy microorganisms, including bacteria, and stop their growth);
  • flame retardants (substances that protect organic compounds from ignition and self-combustion);
  • protective means of combined action (combining the properties of fire-bioprotection); • compositions that restore the color and appearance of wood after their loss due to exposure to natural conditions, as a result of long and improper storage, decay, exposure to fungal spores, etc.;
  • wood surface protection products.

By solubility wood preservatives are divided into:

  • water-soluble — BP;
  • soluble in light organic solvents — L;
  • soluble in oils and heavy petroleum products, oils — M. However, for environmental reasons, the use of these antiseptics is currently very limited.

Wood preservatives according to washout are divided into:

  • easily washable — LV;
  • washed out — B; difficult to wash out — TV;
  • indelible — HB.

Antiseptics for wood according to the nature of the action on the fungal cell can be conditionally divided into two groups:

  1. intracellular poisons that block certain enzymes or their groups; 2. Substances blocking exocellular processes, which are obligatory for wood destroyers. The first group includes water-soluble and sparingly water-soluble substances. Compounds practically insoluble in water act in a similar way, turning into soluble forms under the influence of secretions of the fungal cell. Substances of this group can dramatically change the redox potential and the concentration of hydrogen ions in the cell.
  2. The second group includes substances sparingly soluble in water, introduced into wood in volatile organic or oily solvents. Sometimes these substances block enzymes such as hydrolases. In addition, they can affect enzymes that catalyze extracellular oxidative processes that precede the hydrolysis of the carbohydrate components of the wood cell wall.

STAGES OF PROTECTIVE WORKS

The first and important stage — Fire protection ensures the prevention of ignition, slows down or stops the development of a fire in the initial stage, ensures its localization, reduces the impact of dangerous fire factors and contributes to its rapid elimination, expands the possibilities of new progressive design solutions.

For wooden structures, there are only three groups of fire retardant efficiency of the coating or impregnating composition:

I group – provides for the production of slow-burning wood (weight loss of the prototype during combustion under conditions determined by the technique is not more than 9%).

II group — ensures the production of flame-retardant wood (mass loss from 9 to 30%).

III group — means do not provide fire protection of wood (mass loss more than 30%).

If fire treatment is a mandatory building code for putting a house into operation, then protecting your home from the destructive effects of fungi and bacteria is a personal matter for the future homeowner.

If fire treatment is a mandatory building code for putting a house into operation, then protecting your home from the destructive effects of fungi and bacteria is a personal matter for the future homeowner. But, in fact, few people neglect this procedure, especially in our country, in most of which climatic conditions are classified as unfavorable.

Strong changes in annual temperatures, heavy rainfall, short summers, high humidity, all this contributes to the destruction of wood and the reproduction of wood-boring insects, fungi, mold, which means it shortens the life of a wooden building and, of course, reduces the level of comfort of living in it. Therefore, most owners of wooden housing constructions prefer integrated fire protection.

INNOVATION OF GOODHIM’S APPROACH

Consequently, there was an urgent need for a universal preparation that would combine the properties of an antiseptic and a flame retardant and guarantee all[1]third-party protection of building materials.

Such a preparation should be highly effective and low toxic for humans and animals. It must also meet a number of criteria, such as:

  • high degree of protection;
  • long service life of the composition;
  • compatibility with other formulations;
  • environmental safety for people and animals;
  • washout resistance;
  • depth of penetration of the composition into the material (important for further processing);
  • quality and color of treated wood;
  • low consumption;
  • wide range of application temperatures;
  • optimal price;

Based on the above factors, GOODHIM has developed[1]tala a series of preparations for fire and bioprotection.

Positive test results have shown that all preparations meet the above criteria and can be recommended for fire bioprotection of wood at all stages of construction or reconstruction.

The quality of GOODHIM fire and bioprotection materials is confirmed by the relevant documentation, in accordance with the requirements of the legislation of the Russian Federation.

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